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A unique feature of bilingual speech is that bilinguals often produce utterances that switch between languages, such as “And we reckoned Holland was too small voor ons” [for us].

The overall conveyed meaning of an utterance is a conglomerate of inferences, distinguishable both in how they arise (their semantics) and how they can be appropriately used in conversation (their pragmatics).

Cognitive scientists have been systematically studying processes such as attention, memory and learning for more than 150 years. This rich resource of knowledge has been…