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LINGUIST 2LC3 Hist Linguistics:Lang Evolut (C01)

Academic Year: Fall 2018

Term: Fall

Day/Evening: D

Instructor: Dr. John Colarusso


Office: Chester New Hall 532

Phone: 905-525-9140 x 23902

Office Hours: TBA

Course Objectives:

This course will introduce the student to the inexorable processes that drive language change. The student will also become acquainted with various processes that cause language change through time and language variation across space.  The student may acquire a sense of what it means for languages to be related and how this can be proven.  The student will come to understand what language families are and how they offer insight into the prehistory of humanity.  Finally, the student will become acquainted with selected proto-languages, reconstructed languages that underlie those currently spoken throughout much of the world.

Textbooks, Materials & Fees:

Campbell, Lyle, 2013. Historical Linguistics,  third edition,  MIT Press.


Method of Assessment:


  • 80% Homework (8 at 10% each),
  • Open Book Final Exam 20% (2 problems from text)


Please ask detailed questions about course material and assignments in person.  I only use e-mail to answer administrative/organizational questions that can be answered in one sentence.

Laptop Policy

Seminar: During the seminar portion of the course there is no reason to use a laptop or any electronic device since discussion is the primary form of instruction. Exceptions will be made in unique circumstances - please come and see me if this is an issue for you.


In class lectures, laptops may only be used for taking notes.  Students using laptops for other purposes will be asked to turn their laptops off for the remainder of the course.  Students using laptops are asked to sit in the first three rows of the class. 

Policy on Missed Work, Extensions, and Late Penalties:

Handing in assignments:

  • I do not accept assignments by e-mail. 
  • Written assignments must be handed in HARD COPY at the BEGINNING  OF CLASS,  on the assigned due date. 
  • Late assignments will only be accepted in extenuating circumstances.
  • Late assignments will be subject to a 10% deduction from their grade for each week they are overdue.

Please Note the Following Policies and Statements:

Academic Integrity

You are expected to exhibit honesty and use ethical behaviour in all aspects of the learning process. Academic credentials you earn are rooted in principles of honesty and academic integrity. It is your responsibility to understand what constitutes academic dishonesty.

Academic dishonesty is to knowingly act or fail to act in a way that results or could result in unearned academic credit or advantage. This behaviour can result in serious consequences, e.g. the grade of zero on an assignment, loss of credit with a notation on the transcript (notation reads: "Grade of F assigned for academic dishonesty"), and/or suspension or expulsion from the university. For information on the various types of academic dishonesty please refer to the Academic Integrity Policy, located at

The following illustrates only three forms of academic dishonesty:

  • plagiarism, e.g. the submission of work that is not one’s own or for which other credit has been obtained.
  • improper collaboration in group work.
  • copying or using unauthorized aids in tests and examinations.

Authenticity / Plagiarism Detection

Some courses may use a web-based service ( to reveal authenticity and ownership of student submitted work. For courses using such software, students will be expected to submit their work electronically either directly to or via Avenue to Learn (A2L) plagiarism detection (a service supported by so it can be checked for academic dishonesty.

Students who do not wish to submit their work through A2L and/or must still submit an electronic and/or hardcopy to the instructor. No penalty will be assigned to a student who does not submit work to or A2L. All submitted work is subject to normal verification that standards of academic integrity have been upheld (e.g., on-line search, other software, etc.). To see the Policy, please go to

Courses with an On-Line Element

Some courses use on-line elements (e.g. e-mail, Avenue to Learn (A2L), LearnLink, web pages, capa, Moodle, ThinkingCap, etc.). Students should be aware that, when they access the electronic components of a course using these elements, private information such as first and last names, user names for the McMaster e-mail accounts, and program affiliation may become apparent to all other students in the same course. The available information is dependent on the technology used. Continuation in a course that uses on-line elements will be deemed consent to this disclosure. If you have any questions or concerns about such disclosure please discuss this with the course instructor.

Online Proctoring

Some courses may use online proctoring software for tests and exams. This software may require students to turn on their video camera, present identification, monitor and record their computer activities, and/or lockdown their browser during tests or exams. This software may be required to be installed before the exam begins.

Conduct Expectations

As a McMaster student, you have the right to experience, and the responsibility to demonstrate, respectful and dignified interactions within all of our living, learning and working communities. These expectations are described in the Code of Student Rights & Responsibilities (the "Code"). All students share the responsibility of maintaining a positive environment for the academic and personal growth of all McMaster community members, whether in person or online.

It is essential that students be mindful of their interactions online, as the Code remains in effect in virtual learning environments. The Code applies to any interactions that adversely affect, disrupt, or interfere with reasonable participation in University activities. Student disruptions or behaviours that interfere with university functions on online platforms (e.g. use of Avenue 2 Learn, WebEx or Zoom for delivery), will be taken very seriously and will be investigated. Outcomes may include restriction or removal of the involved students' access to these platforms.

Academic Accommodation of Students with Disabilities

Students with disabilities who require academic accommodation must contact Student Accessibility Services (SAS) at 905-525-9140 ext. 28652 or e-mail to make arrangements with a Program Coordinator. For further information, consult McMaster University’s Academic Accommodation of Students with Disabilities policy.

Email correspondence policy

It is the policy of the Faculty of Humanities that all email communication sent from students to instructors (including TAs), and from students to staff, must originate from each student’s own McMaster University email account. This policy protects confidentiality and confirms the identity of the student.  Instructors will delete emails that do not originate from a McMaster email account.

Modification of course outlines

The University reserves the right to change dates and/or deadlines etc. for any or all courses in the case of an emergency situation or labour disruption or civil unrest/disobedience, etc. If a modification becomes necessary, reasonable notice and communication with the students will be given with an explanation and the opportunity to comment on changes. Any significant changes should be made in consultation with the Department Chair.

Request for Relief for Missed Academic Term Work
McMaster Student Absence Form (MSAF)

In the event of an absence for medical or other reasons, students should review and follow the Academic Regulation in the Undergraduate Calendar "Requests for Relief for Missed Academic Term Work".

Academic Accommodation for Religious, Indigenous and Spiritual Observances (RISO)

Students requiring academic accommodation based on religious, indigenous or spiritual observances should follow the procedures set out in the RISO policy. Students should submit their request to their Faculty Office normally within 10 working days of the beginning of term in which they anticipate a need for accommodation or to the Registrar's Office prior to their examinations. Students should also contact their instructors as soon as possible to make alternative arrangements for classes, assignments, and tests.

Copyright and Recording

Students are advised that lectures, demonstrations, performances, and any other course material provided by an instructor include copyright protected works. The Copyright Act and copyright law protect every original literary, dramatic, musical and artistic work, including lectures by University instructors.

The recording of lectures, tutorials, or other methods of instruction may occur during a course. Recording may be done by either the instructor for the purpose of authorized distribution, or by a student for the purpose of personal study. Students should be aware that their voice and/or image may be recorded by others during the class. Please speak with the instructor if this is a concern for you.

Extreme Circumstances

The University reserves the right to change the dates and deadlines for any or all courses in extreme circumstances (e.g., severe weather, labour disruptions, etc.). Changes will be communicated through regular McMaster communication channels, such as McMaster Daily News, A2L and/or McMaster email.

Topics and Readings:

Topical Outline (one week each)

1.  Introduction (text, pp. 1 – 13)

2.  Sound change (text, pp. 14-55)

 First assignment, from ch. 2 of text, due in one week.

3.  Borrowing

**Assignment One Due.**

4.  Analogical change (text, pp. 91 – 106)

Second assignment, from ch. 4 of text, due in one week. 

5.  The comparative method and linguistics reconstructio  (text, pp. 107 – 158)

Third assignment from ch. 5 of text, due in one week. 

**Assignment Two Due.**

6.  Linguistic classification (text, pp. 171 – 206)

 Fourth assignment from ch. 6 of text, due in one week. 

**Assignment Three Due.**

7.  Relatedness between languages (text, pp. 207 – 252)

Fifth assignment from ch. 7 of text, due in one week. 

**Assignment Four Due.**

8.  The comparative method (text, pp. 253 – 310)

 Sixth assignment from ch. 8 of text, due in one week. 

**Assignment Five Due.**

9.  Internal reconstruction (text, pp. 311 – 332)

Seventh assignment from ch. 9 of text, due in one week. 

**Assignment Six Due.**

10.  The origin and propagation of change (text, pp. 333 – 386)

Eighth assignment from ch. 10 of text, due in one week. 

**Assignment Seven Due.**

11.  Social and historical pressures upon language: Contact, planning, and the birth and

       death of languages (text, pp. 387 – 448)

 **Assignment Eight Due.**

12.  Language and prehistory (text, pp. 449 – 482)

13.  Review